Dedicated to the lost children of Turtle Island—survivors of the Indian residential schools, Indian day schools, Indian and Métis mission schools, Inuit federal hostels, 60’s and 70’s Scoop, forced adoption, foster care, and group homes—and to all other victims of colonial assimilation policy.Frank Christopher Busch

Editing: Sandra McIntyre

Design: John van der Woude

Printed and bound in Canada.

Published by Roseway Publishing, an imprint of Fernwood Publishing.

32 Oceanvista Lane, Black Point, Nova Scotia, B0J 1B0


748 Broadway Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3G 0X3

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer, who may quote brief passages in a review.

Fernwood Publishing Company Limited gratefully acknowledges the financial support of the Government of Canada through the Canada Book Fund, the Canada Council for the Arts, the Nova Scotia Department of Tourism and Culture and the Province of Manitoba, through the Book Publishing Tax Credit, for our publishing program.

Frank Christopher BuschDedication